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GEMINI Respiratory Monitor
Dual O2 and CO2 monitor

The GEMINI Respiration Monitor measures CO2, O2, and respiration rate of spontaneously breathing or ventilated animals. It provides breath-by-breath readings for end-tidal CO2 and O2, and instantaneous respiratory rate (breaths/minute). Adjustable alarms are provided to monitor CO2 and respiratory rate. 

This instrument uses the latest sensor technology for accuracy, stability,  and fast response. CO2 is measured with a temperature-controlled miniature infrared analyzer cell; O2 is measured with a new paramagnetic sensor cell. Respiratory rate is computed using the normal excursion of the CO2 signal, and is updated on each breath.

Simple set up and operation: The sample inlet tubing is connected to the endotracheal tube as close to the animal as possible. High and low alarms are set using a single knob, and the settings are stored in non-volatile memory so they do not have to be reset the next time the instrument is used. All measurements are displayed on the front panel LCD display, and are available as analog voltages for external recording. In addition, a serial port provides all the measurements in a simple ASCII format for collection by any computer. 

Expandable: An open slot is provided for installation of any SYSTEM 1000 instrumentation module. Available modules include a cardiotachometer (Model CT-1000), blood pressure amplifier (Model PM-1000), plethysmographic respiration monitor for very small animals (Model RR-1000), and many other functions. This expandability allows you to configure a complete physiological monitor for use during surgery or extended experiments.

Applications: The GEMINI monitor provides complete information for respiratory status assessment for animals as small as rats. It comes complete with an accessory pack of inlet tubing, connectors, and moisture filters.

Data sheet: For a complete GEMINI data sheet in pdf format click here.


Marine mammal studies using the GEMINI Respiration Monitor

Measuring expired gasses and spirometry from a beluga whale using
CWEs GEMINI O2 & CO2 monitor. 
Photo credit:  Andreas Fahlman



Lung function testing of a beluga whale.
Photo credit:  Andreas Fahlman


Lung function/spirometry, and ultrasound testing of a wild dolphin
temporary held to undergo a veterinary health assessment in Bermuda.
These data provide information about the health of the dolphin in a
pristine environment and allow us to understand the physiological
adaptations that enable dolphins to dive to over 1000 m. The photo
was taken under research permit from the Bermuda Government,
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(Research permit number SP160401r).


Lung function testing/spirometry in a dolphin under human care.
These animals allow researcher to generate baseline data in healthy
animals under controlled conditions. Photo credit: Dolphin Quest Inc

Photos and information courtesy of Andreas Fahlman of Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution and the Oceanografic Foundation in Spain

Here is a pdf describing this work by Andreas Fahlman:

Additional references:









Send mail to  info@cwe-inc.com  with questions or comments about this site or our instruments.
Last modified: May 19, 2015